WELCOME TO KAWAII LATIN!
I decided that to help myself learn, I could help you guys learn too, and I may as well make it cute and fun to look at! (◡‿◡✿)
First lesson is the cases. There are six major cases in latin. The Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Ablative and Vocative. (there is also a sneaky seventh case, the Locative, but we haven’t covered that yet and I don’t think it’s important, or something.) The cases in latin determine a noun’s ending, and those endings are really important because they denote the word’s function in the sentence. Word order is important in English, but it isn’t in Latin, as the endings cover what a word is doing in that sentence. Eg. ‘John throws the ball at the tree’ means something totally different to ‘The tree throws the ball at John’ in english, but in Latin either would be valid because the endings would determine who was doing the throwing, what was being thrown, at what etc. So, let’s get into it!
Nominative: This baby is used to show the subject of your sentence. Put the subject of your sentence in the nominative case. If your sentence is expressing two things being identical/equivalent with a copulative verb (these are verbs like ‘to be’, ‘to become’ and ‘to seem’ - they link two things that are the same.) then you use it for whatever your subject is being (called the predicate nominative). Eg: John is a waiter, both ‘John’ and ‘a waiter’ would be in the nominative because they are the same thing.
Genitive: (I know it’s spelt wrong in the slide, my bad) The genitive is used to show possession, or what you’d translate into english with ‘of’. So the book of the girl —> the girls book —> possession. The case actually encompasses the idea of ‘of the thing’ so you don’t need a preposition.
The case is super useful because you can use it to decline your nouns (more on that in future lessons once I get a handle on it!)
Dative: The dative is the one that comes into play when you are talking about what is affected by the verb, but not directly suffering it. So if John threw the ball at the tree, John is the subject, the ball is being thrown, and the tree is affected by it but not what is being thrown, so it’s the indirect object, and would be in the dative. Also corresponds to the english ‘with reference to’ or ‘for’. SO if you’re saying ‘for person x, this is real’, then ‘person x’ would be in the dative. This last part confuses me a bit T.T
Accusative: So remember your indirect object? This one is used for it’s counterpart, the direct object, or what is directly suffering the verb. So in my previous example, the ball would be in the accusative case as it is what is being thrown. Also if you see a preposition that is expressing movement towards, through, into or around a space, then the accusative is probably involved. (Prepositions lesson soon!)
Ablative: There are three different types of Ablative. Separation, Location, and Accompaniment/instrumentation.
Ablative of Separation - the separation of two things. If you are talking about a physical separation, you need the preposition ‘ab’. If it’s a conceptual/metaphysical/not-physical separation, then you don’t need any preposition.
Ablative of Location - Requires the preposition ‘in’, and expresses where something happens. (I should have put that in the slide!)
Ablative of association - used to associate two people or two things or a person and a thing. If you’re associating two people though, you need the preposition ‘cum’ meaning ‘with’. So if ‘The woman was accompanied by the poet’, the poet would be in the ablative, and would be prefaced with the preposition.
Ablative of instrumentation - shows that something is in use. So ‘The farmer fights with the sword’ - the sword would be in the ablative case, as an ablative of instrumentation, and you don’t need a preposition.
Vocative: I love this one, it’s so simple. It is used for direct address. So if you’re directly addressing someone, you would do so in the Vocative case. It can be prefaced by the preposition ‘O’, as well. As in ‘O, gods’. SIMPLE!
So that was my first lesson! Feel free to ask me about anything, as hopefully you’ll help me think about this. Thank you!